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Sources

  1. (a) Baum, S., Ma, J., & Payea, K. (2014). Education pays 2014. The College Board.

    (b) Stronger Nation (2016). An annual report of Lumina Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/publications/stronger_nation/2016/A_Stronger_Nation-2016-Full.pdf.

  2. McNair, T. B., Albertine, S., Cooper, M. A., McDonald, N., & Major Jr, T. (2017). Becoming a Student-Ready College: A New Culture of Leadership for Student Success. John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Today’s Student Infographic (2016). Lumina Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/resources/todays-student-infographic-1.pdf.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2016). The Status of Women in the States: 2016 — Employment and Earnings. Retrieved from http://statusofwomendata.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Status-of-Women-in-the-States-2015-Full-National-Report.pdf.
  7. Institute for Women’s Policy Research (2015). “5.8 Million College Students are Raising Children.” Fact Sheet, IWPR #C424. Retrieved from http://www.iwpr.org/.
  8. Mathews B. (2017). Hunger on Campus: The Challenge of Food Insecurity for College Students. Retrieved from http://www.cufba.org/report-hunger-on-campus/.
  9. Data Brief (2017). Wisconsin HOPE Lab “What We’re Learning: Prevalence of and Responses to Financial Stress Among Undergraduates” Retrieved from http://wihopelab.com/publications/Wisconsin-HOPE-Lab-Data-Brief%2016-04-Financial-Stress-Among-Undergraduates.pdf.
  10. (a) Ibid.

    (b) Goldrick-Rab, S. (2017). Paying the price: College costs, financial aid, and the betrayal of the American dream. University of Chicago Press.

  11. Kelchen, R. (2016). Exploring the Topic of Indirect Costs to Today’s Higher Education Students. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Quick-Hits-Indirect-Costs.pdf.
  12. (a) Pell Institute Fact Sheet (2015). Six-year degree attainment rates for students enrolled in a post-secondary institution. Retrieved from http://www.pellinstitute.org/downloads/fact_sheets-6-Year_DAR_for_Students_Post_Secondary_Institution_121411.pdf.

    (b) Portraits series (2010). A portrait of low-income young adults in education. Washington, D.C.: Institute for Higher Education Policy. Retrieved from http:// www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/brief_a_portrait_of_low- income_young_adults_in_education.pdf.

  13. “Today’s Reality” statistics compiled by Lumina Foundation. Retrieved from: https://www.luminafoundation.org/todays-student-statistics.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. A Stronger Nation (2017). An annual report of Lumina Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/publications/stronger_nation/2016/A_Stronger_Nation-2016-Full.pdf.
  17. (a) Bailey, M.J. & Dynarski, S.M. (2012). Inequality in Postsecondary Education. In Greg Duncan and Richard Murnane (Eds.), Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children’s Life Chances, pp. 117-132. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    (b) New York Times (2012). Affluent Students Have an Advantage and the Gap Is Widening. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/12/22/education/Affluent-Students-Have-an-Advantage-and-the-Gap-Is-Widening.html.

  18. Resources on Financial Aid. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/issue/focus/financial-aid.
  19. Learning Community Demonstration. Retrieved from http://www.mdrc.org/project/learning-communities-demonstration#overview.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Campbell, C. and Voight, M. (2015). Serving their Share: Some Colleges Could Be Doing a Much Better JobEnrolling and Graduating Low-income Students. IHEP. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/ihep_washington_monthly_final_1.pdf.
  22. Baum, S. Kurose, C., & Ma, J. (2013). How college shapes lives: Understanding the issues. New York:College Board.
  23. Baum, S., Ma, J., & Payea, K. (2013). Education Pays 2013: The benefits of higher education for individuals and society. New York: College Board.
  24. Krueger, K., Parnell, A., Wesaw, A., (2016). Landscape Analysis of Emergency Aid Programs. Retrieved from https://www.naspa.org/images/uploads/main/Emergency_Aid_Report.pdf.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Jones, D. (personal communication, March 9, 2017).
  28. Krueger, K., Parnell, A., Wesaw, A., (2016). Landscape Analysis of Emergency Aid Programs. Retrieved from https://www.naspa.org/images/uploads/main/Emergency_Aid_Report.pdf.
  29. Campbell, C. and Voight, M. (2015). Serving their Share: Some Colleges Could Be Doing a Much Better JobEnrolling and Graduating Low-income Students. IHEP. Retrieved from http://www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/ihep_washington_monthly_final_1.pdf.
  30. Krueger, K., Parnell, A., Wesaw, A., (2016). Landscape Analysis of Emergency Aid Programs. Retrieved from https://www.naspa.org/images/uploads/main/Emergency_Aid_Report.pdf.
  31. Coffey, B., and Ajinkya, J., (2015). Supporting Postsecondary Student Success: A Tactical Guidebook, p. 22.Retrieved from http://www.texascollegeaccess.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Postsecondary-Student-Success-Guidebook.pdf.
  32. Ross, R., White, S., Wright, J., & Knapp, L. (2013). Using behavioral economics for postsecondary success, p. 28. Retrieved from http://www.ideas42.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Using-Behavioral-Economics-for-Postsecondary-Success_ideas42_2013.pdf.
  33. Ideas42(2016). Nudging for Success: Using Behavioral Science to Improve the Postsecondary Student Journey. Retrieved from http://www.ideas42.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Nudging-For-Success-FINAL.pdf.
  34. Price, D., Long, M., Quast, S., McMaken, J., & Kioukis, G. (2014). Public benefits and community colleges: Lessons from the benefits access for college completion evaluation. Final Evaluation Report, p. 11. OMG Center for Collaborative Learning, Philadelphia. http://www.equalmeasure.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/BACC-Final-Report-FINAL-111914.pdf
  35. Krueger, K., Parnell, A., Wesaw, A., (2016). Landscape Analysis of Emergency Aid Programs. Retrieved from https://www.naspa.org/images/uploads/main/Emergency_Aid_Report.pdf.
  36. Ibid., p. 13
  37. (a) Ross, R., White, S., Wright, J., & Knapp, L. (2013). Using behavioral economics for postsecondary success. Retrieved from http://www.ideas42.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Using-Behavioral-Economics-for-Postsecondary-Success_ideas42_2013.pdf

    (b) Shah, A. K., Mullainathan, S., & Shaffer, E. (2012). Some consequences of having too little. Science, 338(6107), pp. 682-685.

    (c) Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S., & Shafer, E. (2004). A behavioral-economics view of poverty. The American Economic Review, 94(2), pp. 419-423.

  38. A portrait of low-income young adults in education (2010). Washington, D.C.: Institute for Higher Education Policy. http://www.ihep.org/sites/default/files/uploads/docs/pubs/brief_a_portrait_of_low-income_young_adults_in_education.pdf
  39. Kinzie, J., and Kuhl, G. (2016). Review of Student Success Frameworks to Mobilize Higher Education. Report prepared for Lumina Foundation.
  40. Ibid.
  41. Ibid.
  42. Glossary entries have been adapted from Duke-Benfield, A. (2015). “Bolstering Non-Traditional Student Success: A Comprehensive Student Aid System Using Financial Aid, Public Benefits, and Refundable TaxCredits.” https://www.clasp.org/sites/default/files/public/resources-and-publications/publication-1/Bolstering-NonTraditional-Student-Success.pdf
  43. Kelchen, R. (2015). Exploring the Topic of Indirect Costs to Today’s Higher Education Students. Retrieved from http://www.acenet.edu/news-room/Documents/Quick-Hits-Indirect-Costs.pdf
  44. Today’s Student Infographic.
  45. Ibid.
  46. Ibid.
  47. A Stronger Nation (2016). An annual report of Lumina Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.luminafoundation.org/files/publications/stronger_nation/2016/A_Stronger_Nation-2016-Full.pdf.
  48. (a) Bailey, M.J. & Dynarski, S.M. (2011). Inequality in Postsecondary Education. In Greg Duncan and Richard Murnane (Eds.), Whither Opportunity: Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children’s Life Chances, pp. 117-132. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

    (b) New York Times (2012). Affluent Students Have an Advantage and the Gap Is Widening. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/12/22/education/Affluent-Students-Have-an-Advantage-and-the-Gap-Is-Widening.html.

  49. Mathews B. (2016). Hunger on Campus: The Challenge of Food Insecurity for College Students. Retrieved from http://www.cufba.org/report-hunger-on-campus/.

Other sources

Increasing College Opportunity for Low-income Students (2014). Washington, D.C.: The Executive Office of the President. Retrieved from https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/increasing_college_opportunity_for_low-income_students_report.pdf

Richburg-Hayes, L., Brock, T., LeBlanc, A., Paxson, C., Rouse, C. E., & Barrow, L. (2009). Rewarding Persistence: Effects of a Performance-Based Scholarship Program for Low-income Parents. New York: MDRC. Geckeler, C. (2008). Helping community college students cope with financial emergencies: Lessons from the dreamkeepers and angel fund emergency financial aid programs. New York: MDRC.

Keeling, R.P. (Ed.). (2004). Learning reconsidered: A campus-wide focus on the student experience. Washington, DC: NASPA: Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education and American College Personnel Association.