Federal emergency pandemic relief funding provided critical support to students and public universities amid a global public health emergency, according to a new analysis from the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities.

As of December 2021, public research universities spent nearly $14.5 billion, or more than 70 percent, of Higher Education Emergency Relief Fund grant dollars. The funds were used to meet students’ basic needs, mitigate the spread of COVID-19, and pivot to online learning followed by hybrid formats, according to the report.