Sources consulted for Today’s Student

  • Analysis of IPEDS 2000-01 and 2015-16 enrollment data for all undergraduate-serving institutions, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP).

  • Ginder, S.A., Kelly-Reid, J.E., & Mann. F.B. (2018). First Look (provisional data), NCES 2017-075rev: Postsecondary institutions and cost of attendance in 2016–17; degrees and other awards conferred, 2015–16; and 12-month enrollment, 2015–16 (Table 5). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017075rev.pdf

  • Ginder, S.A., Kelly-Reid, J.E., and Mann, F.B. (2018). Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall2017; and Financial Statistics and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2017: First Look (Provisional Data) (NCES 2019-021rev). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Table 1. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch

  • Lumina Foundation. (2018). A stronger nation: Learning beyond high school builds American talent. Retrieved from http://strongernation.luminafoundation.org/report/2018/#nation

  • Cahalan, M., Perna, L. W., Yamashita, M., Wright, J. & Santillan, S (2018). Indicators of Higher Education Equity in the United States — 2018 Historical Trend Report. Washington, DC: The Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, Council for Opportunity in Education (COE), and Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy of the University of Pennsylvania (PennAHEAD)

  • Urahn, S. K., & Plunkett, T. (2013). Moving on up: Why do some Americans leave the bottom of the economic ladder, but not others? The Pew Charitable Trusts. Retrieved from http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/assets/2013/11/01/movingonuppdf.pdf

  • Snyder, T.D., de Brey, C., & Dillow, S.A. (2018). Digest of education statistics 2016 (NCES 2017-094), Table 204.10. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute for Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017094.pdf

  • National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. (2017). NCES 2017-144: The condition of education 2017. Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017144.pdf; National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. (2010). NCES 2010-128: The condition of education 2010 (Table A-20-1). Retrieved from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2010/2010028.pdf

  • Analysis conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP) using methodology developed by Darcie Harvey for The Education Trust; inflation data per the Consumer Price Index from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor: All items in U.S. city average, all urban consumers, not seasonally adjusted (CUUR0000SA0), College tuition and fees in U.S. city average, all urban consumers, not seasonally adjusted (CUUR0000SEEB01), Medical care in U.S. city average, all urban consumers, not seasonally adjusted (CUUR0000SAM). Historical household income data per the Current Population Survey from the Census Bureau, U.S. Department of Commerce: Median household income by state, Table H-8, retrieved from https://www2.census.gov/programs-surveys/cps/tables/time-series/historical-income-households/h08.xls

  • Cochrane, D. & Cheng, D. (2016). Student debt and the class of 2015: 11th annual report. The Institute for College Access & Success. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED570962.pdf

  • Carnevale, A.P., Smith, N., & Strohl. J. (2014). Recovery: Job growth and education requirements through 2020. Center on Education and the Workforce, Georgetown Public Policy Institute, Georgetown University. Retrieved from https://cew.georgetown.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Recovery2020.ES_.Web_.pdf

  • Carnevale, A.P., Rose, S.J., & Cheah, B. (2014). The college payoff: Education, occupations, lifetime earnings. Center on Education and the Workforce, Georgetown University. Retrieved from https://cew-7632.kxcdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/collegepayoff-complete.pdf

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: AGE. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students attending 2015-16.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: LOCALRES. Weight: WTA000. Among undergraduate students with known residence while enrolled 2015-16.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: PCTPOV. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students enrolled 2015-16. For dependent students, calculation is based on parent income and family size. For independent students, calculation is based on student income and family size.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: DEPEND. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students with independent status while enrolled 2015-16.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: JOBTYPE2 & JOBENR2. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students working any type of job (including work-study) while enrolled 2015-16; excludes summer employment.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: DEPTYPE. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students with one or more dependents while enrolled 2015-16

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: DEPTYPE & RACE2. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students with child dependents while enrolled 2015-16

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: PAREDUC. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students are considered first-generation if their parents had some college education but no degree, vocational/technical training, high school diploma or equivalent, or no high school education 2015-16.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: IMMIGEN. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students who were first generation immigrants 2015-16.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: MILTYPE. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students who were Active Duty, Reserves, National Guard, or Veteran 2015-16.

  • Analysis of 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:16) data, conducted by the Institute for Higher Education Policy (IHEP). Computation by NCES PowerStats Version 1.0. Variables: DELAYENR & PCTALL. Weight: WTA000. Undergraduate students from the lowest income quintile enrolled 2015-16 who had delayed entry one or more years.

  • TICAS analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education’s National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS).  Figures reflect the cumulative student loan debt (federal and nonfederal) of undergraduates who expected to graduate with a bachelor’s degree in 2015-16

  • Miller, Ben. New Federal Data Show America Still Needs to Improve College Access; Center for American Progress; July 12, 2018

  • Goldrick-Rab, Sara and et al; Still Hungry and Homeless in College; Wisconsin Hope Lab Report. April 2018